Donald Wagner


The Chinese ‘Commercial revolution’ of the 11th century was accompanied by a number of important technical developments. In the iron industry, the last major advances in blast furnace design were made. Water power was widely used for the blast, and coal and coke began to take the place of charcoal for the fuel. New blast furnace structures came into use, in some cases foreshadowing early European designs and those known from the traditional Chinese iron industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. This article reviews the
available evidence on the construction and operation of iron blast furnaces in the Song and Yuan periods (960–1279, 1279–1368), with special reference to the use of mineral fuel.


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How to Cite
Chinese blast furnaces from the 10th to the 14th century. (2022). Historical Metallurgy, 37(1), 25-37.