Mark Pollard

Abstract

This paper continues an earlier contribution that summarized the publications in archaeometallurgical chemistry from 1790 to 1869. Selection for inclusion is focussed primarily on papers which include the chemical analyses of archaeological non-ferrous metals (overwhelmingly copper alloys), but related reports of metal mining and processing, and discussions of metal supply and trade, are also included. The result is a list of 744 publications between 1870 and 1920, of which 29 papers each report more than 30 chemical analyses. The full list and a transcription of the chemical data from approximately 75 papers are available on the FLAME website (http://flame.arch.ox.ac.uk/ public-resources/historical-metal-data-2/). All of the analyses discussed here were produced by gravimetric (wet chemical) analyses, which, from the late 19th century onwards, could be argued to be the best analyses available until very recently, taking into account the relatively large sample taken and the ability to use the analytical total as a quality check.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords
References
Ambrosetti J B 1904, Arqueología argentina: El bronce en la región Calchaquí (Buenos Aires).
Baessler A 1904, Altperuanische Metallgeräte (Berlin).
Ball V 1881, A manual of the geology of India Pt. III - Economic geology (Calcutta).
Ball V 1886-7, ‘Zinc and zinc ores, their mode of occurrence, metallurgy and history in India: with a glossary of Oriental and other titles used for zinc, its ores, and alloys’, Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society 5, 321-331.
Bapst G 1886, ‘Sur la provenance de l’étain dans le monde ancient’, Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 30, 247-255.
Bapst G 1888, Mémoire sur la provenance de l’étain dans la Haute Antiquité. L’âge du cuivre pur, l’invention du bronze, les pays producteurs de l’étain (Bruxelles).
Baudouin M 1921, ‘Procédé pour la détermination des minéraux constituent les haches préhistoriques métalliques: emploi de l’analyse spectrale’, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l’Academie des Sciences 173, 862-863.
Berthelot M 1877, ‘Analyse d’un vin antique, conservé dans un vase de verre scellé par fusion’, Annales de Chimie et de Physique 12, 413-418.
Berthelot M 1885, Les origines de l’alchimie (Paris).
Berthelot M 1887a, ‘Métaux et minéraux provenant de l’Antique Chaldée. Sur les origins de l’étain dans le monde ancien’, Annales de Chimie et de Physique 12, 129-140.
Berthelot M 1887b, ‘Les origines de l’étain dans le monde ancien, d’après de nouvelles analyses’, Revue Scientifique 13, 166-169.
Berthelot M 1887-1888 Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs, 3 vols (Paris).
Berthelot M 1894, ‘Sur l’altération lente des objets de cuivre, au sein de la terre et dans les musées’, Comptes Rendues Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 118, 768-770.
Berthelot M 1906, Archéologie et histoire des sciences (Paris).
Blake J F 1892, Catalogue of the collection of metallurgical specimens formed by the late John Percy esq. M.D. F.R.S., now in the South Kensington museum (London).
Browne F 1916, ‘Early Chinese zinc’, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 64, 576.
Cackett S 1989, ‘Dr Percy and his metallurgical collection’, Historical Metallurgy 23(2), 92-98.
Cermak K 1887, ‘Archaologische Forschungen in der untersten Kulturschicht auf dem Burgberg Hradek in Caslau’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. Verhandlung der Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 19, 466-480.
Chikashige M 1920, ‘The composition of ancient eastern bronzes’, Journal of the Chemical Society 117, 917-922.
Clarke E D 1810, Travels in various countries of Europe, Asia and Africa, 6 vols (Cambridge).
de Mortillet G 1875, ‘Origine du bronze’, Revue d’Anthropologie 4, 650-663.
de Nadaillac J-F-A du P 1883, ‘Les outils en cuivre du Mexique’, La Nature. Revue des sciences et de leurs applications aux arts et à l’industrie 11(2), 67-70.
Diergart P 1902, ‘Die “pseudo-argyros” Frage vom chemischmetallurgischen Standpunkte. Beitrag zur Urgeschichte des Zinkes’, Journal für praktische Chemie 66, 339-345.
Dizé M J J 1790, ‘Analyse du cuivre, avec lequel les anciens fabriquoient leurs médailles, les instruments tranchans’, Observations sur la Physique, sur l’Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts 36, 272-276.
Fiske A J 1911, ‘Analyses of aboriginal copper objects from Mexico and Yucatan’, Journal of the American Chemical Society 33, 1115-1116.
Fletcher L 1887, ‘On crystals of cuprite and cerrusite resulting from the slow alteration of buried coins’, Mining Magazine 7, 187-188.
Foote H W and Buell W H 1912, ‘The composition, structure, and hardness of some Peruvian bronze axes’, American Journal of Science 34, 128-132.
Forbes D 1870, ‘On the Aymara Indians of Bolivia and Peru’, The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London 2, 193-305.
Frantz A 1881, ‘Zink und Messing im Alterthum’, Berg- und Hüttenmännische Zeitung 40, 231-233, 251-253, 337-339, 377, 387-389.
Garland H 1913, ‘Metallographical researches on Egyptian metal antiquities’, Journal of the Institute of Metals 10, 329-343.
Giolitti F 1911, ‘Studî metallografici sulle armi preistoriche’, Atti della Reale Accademia delle scienze di Torino 46, 446-449.
Gilberg M 1987, ‘Friedrich Rathgen: Father of modern archaeological conservation’, Journal of the American Institute of Conservation 26, 105-120.
Gladstone J H 1897, ‘On the transition from the use of copper to that of bronze’, Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 26, 309-320.
Göbel F 1842, Ueber den Einfluss der Chemie auf die Ermittelung der Völker der Vorzeit oder Resultate der chemischen Untersuchung metallischer Alterthümer insbesondere der in den Ostseegouvernements vorkommenden, Behufs der Ermittelung der Völker, van welchen sie abstammen (Erlangen).
Gowland W 1894, ‘On the art of casting bronze in Japan’, Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 609-651.
Gowland W 1899, ‘The early metallurgy of copper, tin, and iron in Europe, as illustrated by ancient remains, and the primitive processes surviving in Japan’, Archaeologia 56, 267-322.
Hofmann K B 1882, ‘Zur Geschichte des Zinkes bei den Alten’, Bergund Hüttenmännische Zeitung 41, 479-483, 491-492, 515-517, 527-528, 542-543.
Hoover H and Hoover L H 1912, Agricola G, De Re Metallica (London).
Jagor F 1877, ‘Analysen von Bronzen, ausgegraben im Nilgiri-Geberge und im Coimbatore-Distrikt, Süd-Indien’, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 9, 206-207.
Jungfleisch É 1913, ‘Notice sur la vie et les travaux de Marcellin Berthelot’, Bulletin de la Société Chimique de France 13, i-cclx.
Kalischer S 1875, ‘Ueber einige japanesische Legirungen’, Dingler’s Polytechnisches Journal 215, 93-94.
Kirchoff G and Bunsen R 1860, ‘Chemische analyse durch spectralbeobachtungen’, Annalen der Physik und Chemie 110, 161-189.
Klaproth M H 1807, ‘Untersuchung chinesischer münzen’, Journal für die Chemie, Physik und Mineralogie 4, 449-451.
Layard A H 1853, Discoveries in the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon: with travels in Armenia, Kurdistan, and the Desert: being the result of a second expedition undertaken for the trustees of the British Museum (London).
Mestorf J 1876, ‘Note sur un bronze de couleur gris d’acier’, Matériaux pour l’histoire primitive et naturelle de l’homme 7, 293-295.
Moore C B 1903, ‘Sheet-copper from the mounds is not necessarily of European origin’, American Anthropologist 5, 27-49.
Morin H 1874, ‘Sur quelques bronzes de la Chine et du Japon à patine foncée’, Annales de Chimie et de Physique 3, 140-144.
Neogi P 1918, Copper in Ancient India (Calcutta).
Neumann B 1907, ‘Chemie und Archäologie’, Zeitschrift für angewandte Chemie 20, 2019–2027.
O’Curry E 1873, On the manners and customs of the ancient Irish. Vol I. Introduction (London).
Parry J and Tucker A E 1880, ‘The application of the spectroscope to the analysis of iron and steel’, Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 30, 163-180.
Percy J 1861-1880, Metallurgy: the art of extracting metals from their ores, and adapting them to various purposes of manufacture, 4 vols (London).
Pollard A M 2013, ‘From bells to cannon – the beginnings of archaeological chemistry in the eighteenth century’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 32, 333-339.
Pollard A M 2015, ‘The first hundred years of archaeometallurgical chemistry: Pownall (1775) to von Bibra (1869)’, Historical Metallurgy 49(1), 37–49.
Pollard A M 2018a, Beyond provenance: The interpretation of chemical and isotopic data in archaeological bronzes (Leuven).
Pollard A M 2018b, ‘Johann Christian Wiegleb and the first published chemical analyses of archaeological bronzes’, Historical Metallurgy 52(1), 48-54.
Popov N 1873, ‘O chudskikh gorodkakh i chudskikh kopyakh v Minusinskom krae’ [On Chud towns and mines in Minusinsk region], Izvestiya Vestochno-Sibirskogo otdela Imperatorskogo Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva 4(3), 132-143.
Pownall T 1775, ‘An account of some Irish antiquities’, Archaeologia 3, 355-370.
Pumpelly R 1866, ‘Notes on Japanese alloys’, American Journal of Science 42, 43-45.
Putnam F W 1883a, ‘Iron from the Ohio Mounds; a review of the statements and misconceptions of two writers of over 60 years ago’, Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 2(3), 349-363.
Putnam F W 1883b, ‘Notes on copper implements from Mexico’, Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 2(2), 235-246.
Ray P C 1902, A history of Hindu chemistry from the earliest times to the middle of the sixteenth century AD, Vol 1 (2nd edn 1903) (Calcutta).
Ray P C 1909, A history of Hindu chemistry from the earliest times to the middle of the sixteenth century AD, Vol 2 (Calcutta).
Riederer J 1976, ‘Friedrich Rathgen’, Berliner Beiträge zur Archäometrie 1, 3-12.
Roberts-Austen W C and Wingham A 1892, Report on the analysis of various examples of oriental metal-work, &c., in the South Kensington Museum and other collections (London).
Royer C 1886, ‘Sur l’origine du bronze et de l’étain préhistoriques’, Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris 9, 290-316.
Sato D 1900, ‘Notes on the chemical composition of ancient bronze implement’, Tōkyō Jinrui Gakkai zasshi (Journal of the Anthropological Society of Tokyo) 16, 85-90.
Schliemann H 1878, Mykenae: Bericht iiber meine Forschungen und Entdeckungen in Mykenae und Tiryns (Leipzig).
Schuler J 1879, ‘Analyse einer alten Bronze und deren Patina’, Dingler’s Polytechnisches Journal 232, 333-336.
Sorby H C 1864, ‘On a new method of illustrating the structure of various kinds of “blister” steel by nature printing’, Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, Feb 1864.
Tabaries de Grandsaignes 1907, ‘Présence du Zinc dans les Bronzes réputés préhistorique’, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique de France 4, 66-71.
Tylecote R F 1962, Metallurgy in archaeology. A prehistory of metallurgy in the British Isles (London).
Tylecote R F 1976, A history of metallurgy (London).
Tylecote R F 1987, The early history of metallurgy in Europe (London).
Uvarov A S 1855, Recherches sur les antiquités de la Russie méridionale et des côtes de la mer Noire (St Petersburg).
von Baer K E 1876, ‘Von wo das Zinn zu den ganz alten Bronzen gekommen sein mag?’, Archiv für Anthropologie 9, 263-267.
von Bibra E F 1869, Die Bronzen und Kupferlegirung der alten und ältesten Völker, mit Rücksichtnahme auf jene der Neuzeit (Erlangen).
Weiss H, Dandurand F and Dureuil E 1923, ‘Études sur une hache grecque préhistorique. Sa composition par l’analyse spectrale et l’analyse chimique. La reconstruction partielle de sa métallurgie par la métallographie microscopique’, Bulletin de la Société chimique de France 33, 439-447.
Wibel F 1887, ‘II. Chemisch-antiquarische Mitteilungen. 3. Analyse einer altmexikanischen Bronze-Axt von Atotonilco’, Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg 10, 15-16.
Wiegleb J C 1777 ‘Chemisch Untersuchung einiger künstlichen Metallarten, woraus verschiedene aus dem Altertum herrührende Instrumente versertiget gewesen, welche im vorigen Jahre in einer benachbarten Gegend gefunden worden find’, Acta Academiae Electoralis Moguntinae Scientarium Utilium, quae Erfurti est, 50-57.
How to Cite
Archaeometallurgical chemistry 1870-1920: the high point of gravimetric analysis. (2022). Historical Metallurgy, 52(2), 110-117. https://www.hmsjournal.org/index.php/home/article/view/21
Section
Articles